ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND COMPENSATION IN NIGERIA PETROLEUM INDUSTRY: ADOPTING INTERNATIONAL BEST STANDARD



Abstract
It is no doubt that oil industry is the biggest resource manager in the anal of Nigeria economy. It is true that the oil industry is one of the international industries where different countries of the world relate communally. However, the thunderous benefit derivable from this natural gift (oil) cannot at any time quieting the dangers inherent in its manipulation and exploitation. “ perhaps, a threat to nature is a direct threat to life” furthermore, the most outrageous damage caused to land, air and water in the world over and  Nigeria in particular has been linked to oil pollution. For instance, the cases of Niger Delta region of Nigeria, where the inhabitants are mainly farmers, count their losses virtually on daily bases. This monster, called oil pollution destroys oil fertility thereby making the land unfit for crops production. 
Cause and foul the waters to the detriment of marine lives. Consequently, when these disasters occur, it is expected that the victims should adequately compensated.[1] But unfortunately the avalanche of petroleum laws and environmental laws in Nigeria, seemed to be silent over what constitutes adequate compensation as contained in the law. This research work therefore evaluates these situations and tried to provide solutions to the question raised therein. Chapter one of the work introduces the work generally. The legal framework for control of oil pollution is tackled in chapter two while chapter three handles the concept of oil pollution and its hazardous effect on the environment and chapter four evaluate liability and compensation for oil pollution and finally chapter five settles conclusion recommendation and bibliography. 


TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page      
Certification 
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgements
Table of Content     
Table of Cases         
Table of Statue        
List of Abbreviation           
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1             Background of the Study
1.2             Statement of Problem
1.3             Objective of the study
1.4             Research questions
1.5             Relevance of the Study
1.6             Scope of the study
1.7             Limitation of the study
1.8             Methodology for the study

CHAPTER TWO

THE CONCEPT OF OIL POLLUTION AND ITS HAZARDOUS EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
2.1   Historical survey of Oil Exploration and Exploration in Nigeria since 1956.
2.2       The impact of Oil and Industrial Polluting on the World Environment and
Nigeria Environment in particular
2.3       The Concept of Oil Pollution Damage
2.3.1   Land Pollution
2.3.2   Air Pollution
2.3.3   Water Pollution
2.4       Oil Spillage cum gas flaring
2.4.1   Oil Spillage
2.4.2   Gas Flaring
2.5       The People of Niger Delta and Environmental fouling

CHAPTER THREE
NIGERIA LEGAL REGIME ON CONTROL OF PETROLEUM POLLUTION:  A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE JURISDICTION
31        Local legislations and decrees on control of oil pollution in Nigeria
3.2.      International Convention on the Establishment of an International
Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation
for Oil Pollution Damage 1971
3.2.1   International Convention for the prevention of the sea by oil
3.2 International Regulatory Bodies for Control and prevention of oil
      pollution
3.3       Oil pollution laws of other jurisdiction
3.4   The challenges of Court Jurisdiction on Oil Pollution in Nigeria

CHAPTER FOUR
AN EVALUATION OF LIABILITY AND COMPENSATION FOR OIL POLLUTION DAMAGE IN NIGERIA
4.1.      Liabilities for oil pollution
4.1.2   Civil Liability for oil pollution
4.2       Nature of  Defences for oil pollution damage
4.3       The Victims legal rights over oil and Industrial Pollution
4.4       Compliance to International Standard Quantum of Compensation for Oil
Pollution damage
4.5       Alternative Dispute Resolution (A.D.R.) as an Alternate to litigation

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Observations
5.2       Recommendations
5.3       Conclusion

TABLES OF CASES
Allar iron V. Shell BP [2012] unreported suit No. w/89/71190. Available at http/./www.vathek.org/.enlr.2012.14.4348, accessed on 10th July, 2013

Amodu Tijani V. The Secretary of Southern Province [1921] available at http/./www.Nigeria-Law.org/Amodu%2520Tijani Accessed on 4th July, 2013

Attorney General of Bendel State & Ors V. Adeyan [1989] SC 131

Birmingham City Corporation V. West Midland Baptist (Trust) Association Inc. [1969]3 All E.K. (pt. 172) page 185

Braithwaite V. Sky Bank Plc. [2012] CLR 12 (e) SC

Chief A. S. Amos & Ors V. Shell BP D.C.N Ltd [1977]6 SC (Pt. 109) 114

Chief Otoko V. S.P.D.C (Nig) Ltd [1990]6 NWLR (Pt. 159)  693

Douglas V. Shell BP & 5 Ors [1994]6 NWLR (Pt. 350) 256
Friday Akpanu V. Shall  [2013] Published on http/./www. recht  speak . nl under no LDN  BM 1469 visited on 14/12/2012.

Hallelujah Bukuma Fishers Development Co. (Nig) Ltd V. SPDC (Nig) Ltd [2002]4 NWLR (Pt. 758) 505

Lewis V. Bankole [1909]1 NLR, 81

Machine Umudje V. Shell BP D. C. (Nig) Ltd [1975]11 SC (Pt. 155) 160 &167

Mardraj V. Texaco Trinidad Inc. [1969]15 West Indian Reports (WIR) 251

National Oil Spill V. PPMC [2012] unreported suit No. FHC/ASB/18/105/10

Niger Delta Farmers & Ors V. Shell BP [2013] available at www.sahareporters.com>Home>News & Reports, accessed on 14/07/2013

Odim & Ors V. SPDC (Nig) Ltd [1974]2 R.S.L.R (pt. 93) page 109

Onyori & Ors V. S.P.D.C (Nig) Ltd & Ors [1982] unreported suit No. FCA/B/1/81 of 7th Dec. 1982

Ports & Cargo Handling Services Co. Ltd & Ors V. Migfo (Nig Ltd & Ano [2009]11
NWLR CA/L/214m/07.
Raithwaite V  Skye Bank Plc  [ 2012] CLR  12 (e) (sc)

Re oil spill [2012] unreported suit No. 10.02179/WL6652608/2012 C.E.D.La. Dec. 21st,
2012. Available at http/./www.blog.Thomsoreuters.com/indes.php/j accessed on
07/07/2013

Ryland V. Fletcher [1866] L.R.I Exch. 265

S.L.B Consortium v V. NNPC [2011]9 NWLR (pt 1252) page 317 SC

S.P.D.C  V. Isaih [1997]6 NWLR (Pt. 508)  236

S.P.D.C V. Tiebovii  [ 1982] unreported suit No: FCA /B/1/8 of 7/12/82

San Ikpede V. SPDC (Nig) Ltd [1973] M.W.S.J. (Pt. 61)  88

Seismograph Services (Nig) ltd V. Esis Akororo [1974]6 SC 124

Williams V. Kamon [1968]1 All NLR (Pt 399)406

American Oil Pollution Act (O.P.A)

Association Gas Re-injection Act Cap. A25, Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
(L.F.N)

Constitution (Suspension and Modification), Decree

Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended)

Criminal Code Act, Cap. C38 L.F.N., 2010

Evidence Act, 2010. Cap. E 14 LFN 2010
Federal Environmental Protection Act (FEPA) Cap. F10 L.F.N, 2010.

Land use Act, 1978. Cap. L5  LFN 2010

Oil in Navigable Waters Act Cap 06 L.F.N, 2010

Oil Pipeline Act Cap. 145, L.F.N

Petroleum (Drilling & Production) Regulation 1969
Petroleum Act Cap. P10 L.F.N

Petroleum profit Tax Act Cap. 354 L.F.N

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS
Conference of the Committee Maritime International (C.M.I 1994.  
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ship (MARPO 1973)

International Convention for the Prevention of the Sea by oil.  

International Convention on Oil Pollution preparedness, Response and Co-operation
(I.C.O.P.P.R.C 1990)

International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for oil Pollution Damage 1971

LIST OF ABBREVIATION
FEPA                          Federal Environmental protection Agency
LFN                            Laws of the Federation of Nigeria
IRBCPOP                  International Regulatory Bodies for Control and Prevention
of Oil Pollution Act 
CWA                          Clean Water Act
SPDC                          Shell Petroleum Development Company
IMB                            International Marketing Board
NNPC                         Nigeria National Petroleum Commission
OPEC              Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
                                    PSC  Production Sharing Contract
PPMC                         Pipe lines and production marketing Company
MOSOP                      Movement for the Survival of Ogony people  
CNA                           Clean Nigeria Association
MWSJ                        Midd Western States Judgments  
JSC                             Justice of  the Supreme Court
ADR                           A Hernative Disput Resolution
UN                              United Nation
CMI                            Committee of Maritime International  
US                               United State
CAJ                             Appeal Court Justice
WWW                        World Wide Web
NOSDRA                   National Oil Spill Detection Response  Agency
EIA                             Environmental Impact Assessment
NWLR                        Nigeria Weekly Law Report
FWLR             Federal Weekly Law Report
FRN                            Federal Republic of Nigeria
SC                               Supreme Court
JSC                             Justice of the Supreme Court
WIR                            West Indian Report
                                    Internal Maritime Organization


[1] Section 11 (5) of the oil pipeline Act, Cap 145, law of the Federation of Nigeria 2010.




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