EFFECT OF EXPERIENTIAL TEACHING APPROACH ON PUPILS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY



ABSTRACT
This study evaluated the effects of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ achievement in basic science and technology in selected primary schools in Onueke Education Zone of Ebonyi State. The study adopted a pretest posttest, quasi experimental research design. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. A total of 426 pupils from 6 intact classes were used for the study. Three intact classes were assigned to treatment group while the other three intact classes were assigned to the control group. The treatment group was taught Basic Science and Technology (BST) using the experiential teaching method while control group was taught using the conventional teaching method.
A basic Science and Technology Achievement Test (BSAT) developed by the researcher with spearman reliability co-efficient of 0.77 and internal consistency of 0.87 determined using the KR20 approach was used for data collection. and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) to test the hypotheses. The research questions were answered using adjusted mean and standard deviations. The result  revealed that there was a significant different  between pupils taught basic science and technology using experiential teaching approach and those taught basic science and technology using the traditional (Conventional) teaching approach with experiential teaching approach being more facilitative. Again, there was no significant difference between male and female pupils taught basic science and technology using experiential teaching approach. Finally, it was found that there were no interaction effects between gender and methods on achievement in basic science and technology. It was therefore recommended among others that teachers of primary schools should adopt experiential teaching approach in teaching basic science and technology in the study area to ensure hands-on-activities and thereby contributing to enhanced achievement.





EFFECT OF EXPERIENTIAL TEACHING APPROACH ON PUPILS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Ph.D THESIS

RESEARCH DISSERTATION REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND COMPUTER EDUCATION FACULTY OF EDUCATION

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE EDUCATION (MSc.Ed) IN SCIENCE EDUCATION (MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION)


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title
Approval
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgment
Table of content
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Research questions
Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual framework
Experiential Learning
Criteria for selecting level of experience
Principles of analogy or association
Principle of mental set
Retention of learning
Strategies for facilitating retention
Meaningfulness and organization of subject matter
Association
Learning by practice
Use of Mnemonic Device
Transfer of learning
Life Skill
Gender Sensitivity
Experiential learning model
Theoretical Frame Work
Experiential learning theory
John Dewey’s Theory of Experience
Interaction
Piagetian Theory of Cognitive Development
Kurt Lewin Cognitive Field Theory and Motivation
Theory of Transfer
Generalization
Theory of Identical Elements
Formal Disciplines
Review of Empirical Studies
Summary of Reviewed Related Literature

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instrument for Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Experimental Procedure
Control of extraneous variable
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Hypotheses
Summary of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION
The effect of experiential teaching approach on pupils’ mean achievement in basic science
The effect of experiential teaching approaches on male and female pupil’s
The interaction effects of method and gender on pupils’ achievement in basic science

CHAPTER SIX:
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of the Study
Conclusion
Recommendations
Educational Implications
Limitations of the study
Suggestions for further research




REFERENCES
APPENDICES
Appendix I:   Experimental instructional package (for treatment
Appendix II:  Conventional instructional package (for control Group)
Appendix III: Item Analysis of Basic Science and Technology Achievement Test
Appendix IIIB:          Distraction Index (DI)
Appendix IV:                        Table of specification for BSAT
Appendix V:             Model Experiential lesson Note
Appendix VI:               Basic Science and Technology Achievement Test (BSAT)
Appendix VII:  Reliability Test of the Instrument (Stability)
Appendix VIII:  Reliability test of the BSAT instrument using the KR20 Approach

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:          Table of content
Table 2:          Learning styles
Table 3:          Mean and Standard deviation of achievement scores of pupils taught using experiential and conventional teaching methods

Table 4:          Mean achievement scores and standard deviation of male and female pupils taught Basic Science and technology using the experiential teaching approach.

Table 5:          Summary of interaction effect between gender and teaching method an achievement in basic science and Technology

Table 6:          Analysis of co-variance for pupils’ overall Basic Science and technology achievement scores by teaching methods and gender

Table 7:          Analysis of Co-variance for overall achievement for experiential teaching method by gender

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APPENDIX
Experimental Instructional Package (For Treatment)
Topic Instructional objectives Content Activity Simple machines  At the end of the lesson pupils should be able to:

Define simple machine (experience the activity Definition of simple machines.
(a) makes work easier
(b)  increase the speed with which work is done
(c) changes direction of force
     The facilitator asks some pupils to open a bottle with opener, and others to open without opener, cut a stick with knife or cut without knife etc.
 The pupils explain simple machines based on activities carried out or prior knowledge. This they do collaboratively as they work in groups.   Explain classes of simple machines. There are three types of major classes of simple machines. But generally machines can be classified into simple and complex machines. But we want to concentrate here on classes of simple machines.
Examples of simple machines are; spoon, fork, can opener, broom, harmer, cutlass, pliers, etc. hence simple machines can be classified into three main groups; first class, second class and third class simple machines. The simple machine machines are divided into three major parts: the load, the effort and the fulcrum (turning point). The classification of simple machines into those three classes is based on the position of the load, effort and fulcrum.  The pupils work in groups, examine the different materials given by the facilitators, describe it and agree on a consensus opinion. The facilitators move round the groups and ask questions to guide the pupils. 

Give examples of simple machine Based on the instructional materials which were provided or supplied by pupils, they identify the following types of simple machines.
1.  The lever: The lever has three  Parts.
-  Fulcrum (b) the load (c) the efforts specific examples of lever include: the wheel barrow (b) the sugar tong (c)  bar and wedge.
The pulley:  This is a machine used to lift heavy objects by applying a little force relative to the load. There are simple pulleys and movable pulleys etc. Pupil share the experiences, describe, results  publicity, individual or by groups.   (Process) mention the uses of simple machines. The facilitator will organize activities and ask question which will lead pupils to state that simple machines are used for the following:
-  Opening of bottle cork such as fanta or coke e.g opener - driving nails into wood by carpenters e.g harmer.
-  Carrying load e.g barrow etc. Pupils describe the uses of simple machines based on activities carried out in the class
(Generalize) state the advantages of using simple machines. The pupils should compare using simple machines with using bare hand and therefore find out that:
It makes work easier
It enables large work to be done
It saves man’s energy etc. Based on the activities done by pupils they will provide the answers while teachers guide them.   (Apply) mention places where machines are used to do work. -  farmers use hoes to turn the soil before planting seeds.
-  Carpenters use harmer to drive nails into wood.
-  Children use broom to sweep classrooms.
-  Mothers use kitchen knife to cut vegetables at home Pupils relate what was learned to situations outside the classroom.   Evaluation: Mention two examples of  simple machines used at homes
(2)  How do we make our work to be easier?
(3)  Mention two types of first class machines used at your homes?   Friction At the end of the lesson pupils should be able to:     Define friction (experience the activity) Facilitator (teacher) arranges series of activity that will lead the learners (pupils) discover that friction is the force which makes moving things to slow down and stop moving. The force  is important as it helps us walk without falling. It produces heat. It causes rubbing parts to wear out or get damaged. Pupils are provided with different instructional materials and directed on activities to perform by teacher, which will lead them to define friction. They may also define it based on prior knowledge.   (share) mention the heat caused by friction Based on the simple activities which the facilitator (teacher) must have asked the pupils to perform, such as rubbing of their shoes on the ground the pupils will be able to state that: friction produces a lot of heat. When one rubs two palms together for some time they become hot etc. Children share to the entire class the group activity, from which they draw their conclusions.   (Process) state the harmful effects of friction. Based on activities carried out by the various groups, they will mention that friction: wears off the sole of our shoes, sandals and slippers.
-  It wears off tyres of bicycles, cars and motorcycles. It also wears of metal surface such as knifes and make them blunt. It damages parts of machines etc.  Teachers guide pupils through short structured questions while they work in groups to find out answers. Pupils give out the answer.   (generalize) Facilitator through structured questions should guide the pupils to state that, whenever two surfaces rub together, it causes frictional forces which produces heat and wears away the materials, these damages the two object hence there is need to reduce such rubbing together. These can be done by: lubrication, application of oil or grease to two surfaces that move together.
(b)  Use of ball-bearing – A ball bearing is a round part of a machine that allows a moving part to turn against a fixed part smoothly.
(c)   Use of chain drive belt etc The pupils draw the generalization through the help of the teacher who guides them on what to do in their various groups   (Apply) pupils state application of frictional force in real life.
 The pupils will be able to state that without frictional force man cannot walk. Mechanics apply grease to two car parts  that rub together to reduce their wearing away due to frictional force.
     Kitchen knives wear out their surface because they rub together with object they are cutting etc. Teachers guide pupils through structured questions to mention situations outside schools where the effect of friction is felt.   EVALUATION Why do your sandals wear off their soles?
(2)  Mention one advantage of
       frictional force.
(3)  How do we reduce the
       Frictional force between two parts of simple machine.   Living and non-living objects At the end of the lesson pupils  should be able to:     Define living and
non-living things (Experience
the activity) Definition of living and non-living things. Based on activities carried out by pupils they will discover that living things are objects that are alive. There are two types of living thing animals and plants.
    They can grow, they can eat, they produce young ones, they die, they respond to changes in their surrounding. Examples of living things are teachers pupils, lizards, birds fish, mango trees, grasses in the field, goats etc.
     Non-living things on the other hand are things that are not alive. They do not do what living objectives do, such as eat, grow, respond to changes in the  environment etc. examples are stone, woods, water, sand, cars, bicycles, chalkboard, table, pencil etc. Pupils are taken out of the classroom or are presented with some objects by the facilitators and are asked to carryout some activities designed by the facilitator.   (share) differentiate living and non-living things Based on the activities carried out by the children in their different groups, they are able to state that, mango trees grow and bear fruits for example. It is a living thing.
  Other living things include: fish, dog, goat, teacher, pupils, parents etc.
  While non-living things, because they do not grow, eat, reproduce are non-living things e.g stone, table, biro, pencil etc.
 Pupils differentiate living and non-living things based on activities carried out in their various groups.   (process) classify objects into living and non-living thing Pupils based on the activities carried out by them in the various groups are able to state categorically which objects can be classified as either living or non-living things. They also mention that living objects can become non living object.
  While non-living objects can not be a living objects. They are able to state those characters that make an object to be classified as living or non-living objects. Pupils classify objects into living and non-living. They also mention the characteristics of living and non-living things.   Generalize Pupils are able to mention other objects outside the classroom and are either living or non-living objects. Pupils are able to generalize the knowledge learnt in the classroom to situations outside the classroom.   (apply) Pupils are asked to mention objects in their homes, and communities and classify them into living and non-living things. Pupils carry out the task as directed by the facilitator (teacher) and were able to mention different objects in their homes and are able to classify them. Such objects include spoons, raw yam, boiled rice, tables, river, water, mosquito, termites, wooden gong etc. this stage enhances transfer of learning Pupils mention and classify these objects into living and non- living things.   Evaluation : 
 Mention three objects in your home that are living things.
2. Mention one characteristic  of a non-living thing.
3.  Mention two objects in your community that are non-living things?  

APPENDIX
Conventional Instructional Package (For Control Group)
Topic Instructional objectives Content Activity  Simple machines At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:     Define simple machines Definition of simple machines this is a device which by applying force
(a) makes work easier
(b)  Increase the speed with which work is done
(c)  Changes direction of force The teacher defines simple machines   Explain classes of simple machines There are three major classes of simple machine. But in addition machines can also be classified into simple or complex machines, hand-driven or power-driven machines. But the type that we are to concerned with here is simple machine. These can be classified into first class second class and third class simple classes and third class simple machines. All simple machines are divided into three major parts: the load, the effort and the fulcrum (turning point). The classification of simple machine into first class, second class and third class is based on the location of the load, the effort and the fulcrum. The teachers explain them to the pupils while the pupils opy notes.   Gives examples of simple machines. Some examples of  simple machines includes
The Lever: The lever has three parts
(a)  The fulcrum (b) the load (c) the effort. Examples of levers are: the wheel barrow (b) the sugar tong (c) bar and wedge.
 The pulley: This machine is used to lift heavy object  by applying little force. There are movable pulleys and simple pulleys etc.
 Children answer   Mention the uses of simple machines
1. Cutting of cloths e.g scissors.
2   Opening of bottle cork e.g bottle opener
3.  driving nails into woods e.g hammer
4.  For carrying load e.g wheel barrow.
5.  For turning over soil e.g hoe
6.  for killing bird e.g catapult
7.  for cutting vegetables e.g
Kitchen knife etc. Teacher lists the uses of simple machines.   State the advantages of using simple machines 1.  It makes work easier
2.  Large work is done in a short time
3.  Saves man’s effort etc Teacher lists the advantages of using simple machines   Evaluation: Mention two examples of simple machines used at homes
2.  How do we make our work to be easier?
3.  Mention two types of first class machines used at your homes?    Topic Instructional objectives. At the end of the lesson pupils should be able to: Content Activity    Define friction Definition of friction:
This is the force which makes moving things slow down and stops moving. The force is important as it helps us to walk without falling. It produces heat. It cause rubbing parts to wearing out or get damaged. For instance the wearing  out of our slippers or soles. The teacher explains this to the pupils.   Mention Heat caused  by friction Friction produces a lot of heat when a machine works for some time some of  its parts become hot, because these parts are rubbing against each other The teacher explains this to the pupils while the pupils listen.   State the harmful effects of friction (1) It wears off the soles of our shoes
(2)  it wears off the tyres of cars.
(3) motorcycles and bicycles  tyres
(4)  surfaces of machines wear out
(5)  it wears away kitchen knives  and make it burnt
 The teacher lists these effects while the pupils listens attentively   States ways to reduce friction Friction can be reduced by
(1)  Application of lubricants such as oil or grease. This is done to two surfaces that move against each other.
2. Reducing friction with ball-bearing. A ball bearing is a round part of a machine that allows a moving part to turn against a fixed part smoothly. 3. reducing friction using a simple belt drive
4. Reducing friction by chain drive etc. The teacher explains while the pupils listens and write down notes.   Evaluation  Why do your sandals wear off their soles?
(2)  Mention one advantage of frictional force.
(3)  How do we reduce the frictional force?   Living and non-living objects At the end of the lesson. Pupils should be able to:     Define living and non- living objects Living things are objects that are alive. There are two types of living things:- animals and plants. We know living things by what they do:
(1)  they can grow, they can move, they can eat, they produce young ones, they die and, they respond to changes in their surroundings e.g teacher, bird, lizard, fish, mango tree, grass, goat, mosquito etc Non-living things are things that are not alive. They cannot do what living objects do. Such as grow, etc, move around, reproduce, die, respond to changes in their environment etc. The teachers define living and non-living things and gives example.   Differentiate living and non-ling things. The following are some example of living things:
-  mango trees, grasses, teachers, pupils, fathers and mothers, fish, dogs, cows, etc while the following are examples of non-living things: stones, water, black board, pencil, biro, kitchen knives, table, cloths etc. The teacher explains.   Evaluation Mention three objects in your home that are living things.
(2)  Mention one characteristic of a non- living thing?
(3)  Mention two objects in your community that are non-living things?    Classify objects into living and non-living objects. Living objects  and Non living objects.
Frog, horse, fish fan, ruler, desk, butterfly, lemon grass, basket. The teacher classifies these objects while the pupils listen. 
Appendix 3:  Item Analysis of Basic Science Achievement Test
Items% % pass in upper group % pass in lower group % discrimination Difficulty index remarks

APPENDIX
The Distraction Index (DI)
S/No Option A B C D  1 Upper group 7* 0 0 0   Lower group 3 1 1 2   Distraction index  -0.14 0-0.14 -0.26  2 Upper group 1 2 4* 0   Lower group 2 3 1 1   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14  -0.14  3 Upper group 2 4* 1 0   Lower group 3 1 2 1   Distraction index -0.14  -0.14 -0.14  4 Upper group 5* 2 0 0   Lower group 2 3 1 1   Distraction index  -0.14  -0.14  5 Upper group 1 5* 0 0   Lower group 2 3 1 1   Distraction index -0.14 - -0.14 -0.14  6 Upper group 2  4* 0 1   Lower group 3 1 1 2   Distraction index -0.14 - -0.14 -0.14  7 Upper group 0 4* 0 3   Lower group 1 1 1 4   Distraction index -0.14 - -0.14 -0.14  8 Upper group 0 0 6* 1   Lower group 1 1 1 4   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14 - -0.43  9 Upper group 3 0 3* 1   Lower group 4 1 0 2   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14  -0.14  10 Upper group 6* 1 0 0   Lower group 3 2 1 1   Distraction index  -0.14 -0.14 -0.14  11 Upper group 0 0 0 7*   Lower group 1 1 2 3   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14 -0.14   12 Upper group 7* 0 0 0   Lower group 4 1 1 1   Distraction index  -0.14 -0.14 -0.14  13 Upper group 1* 4 1 1   Lower group  0 2 3 2   Distraction index 0 0.28 -0.28 -0.14  14 Upper group 2 5* 0 0   Lower group  3 2 1 1   Distraction index -0.14  -0.14 -0.14  15 Upper group 1 0 0 6*   Lower group  2 1 1 3   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14 -0.14   16 Upper group 2 4* 0 1   Lower group  3 1 1 2   Distraction index -0.14 0 -0.14 -0.14  17 Upper group 4* 1 1 1   Lower group  1 2 2 2   Distraction index  -0.14 -0.14 -0.14  18 Upper group 2 0 5* 0   Lower group  3 1 2 1   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14  -0.14  19 Upper group 6* 1 0 0   Lower group  3 2 2 4   Distraction index  -0.14 -0.29 -0.25  20 Upper group 0 1* 0 5   Lower group  1 1 1 4   Distraction index -0.14  -0.14 0.14  21 Upper group 0 1 6* 0   Lower group  1 2 3 1   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14  -0.14  22 Upper group 1 0 6* 0   Lower group  2 1 4 1   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14  -0.14  23 Upper group 4* 0 3 0   Lower group  0 1 5 1   Distraction index  -0.14 -0.29 -0.14  24 Upper group 0 1 5* 1   Lower group 1 3 1 2   Distraction index -0.14 -0.29  -0.14  25 Upper group 0 1 0 6*   Lower group 1 3 1 2   Distraction index -0.14 -0.29 -0.14   26 Upper group 1 1 5* 0   Lower group 2 2 2 1   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14  -0.14  27 Upper group 0 2 5* 0   Lower group 1 3 2 1   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14  -0.14  28 Upper group 1 0 1 5*   Lower group 2 1 2 2   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14 -0.14   29 Upper group 1 4* 1 1   Lower group 2 1 2 2   Distraction index -0.14  -0.14 -0.14  30 Upper group 1 6* 0 0   Lower group 2 1 3 1   Distraction index -0.14  -0. 43 -0.14  31 Upper group 7* 0 0 0   Lower group 4 1 1 1   Distraction index  -0.14 -0.14 -0.14  32 Upper group 1 0 0 6*   Lower group 2 1 1 3   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14 -0.14   33 Upper group 3* 1 0 3   Lower group 0 2 1 4   Distraction index  -0.14 -0.14 -0.14  34 Upper group 1 0 0 6*   Lower group 2 1 1 3   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14 -0.14   35 Upper group 3* 3 1 0   Lower group 0 4 2 1   Distraction index  -0.14 -0.14 -0.14  36 Upper group 0 6* 0 1   Lower group 1 2 1 3   Distraction index -0.14  -0.14 -0.29  37 Upper group 1 1 0 5*   Lower group 2 2 1 2   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14 -0.14   38 Upper group 6* 0 0 0   Lower group 4 1 1 1   Distraction index  -0.14 -0.14 -0.14  39 Upper group 0 4* 0 3   Lower group 1 1 1 4   Distraction index -0.14  -0.14 -0.14  _40 Upper group 0 0 7* 0   Lower group 1 1 4 1   Distraction index -0.14 -0.14  -0.14

APPENDIX
TABLE OF SPECIFICATION FOR BSAT TEST ITEMS
Total   You and the environment  3 2 3 8  Living  and non-living things  5 3 4 12  You and technology  3 1 2 6  You  and Energy  6 4 4 14  Total 17 10 13 40 

APPENDIX
_Model Experiential Lesson Note

Topic:  Simple Machine
Class:               Basic 6
Time:               45 minutes

Specific objectives
At the end of this lesson, pupils should be able to;
1.         Define machine
2.         Identify simple machines
3.         Mention the uses of machines in their homes
4.         Identify the benefits of using machines

Instructional materials
Scissors, twine, opener, corked bottle, wooden planks, nails, deflated football, football pump, pincer, hammer, short dry wood, cutlass.
Step 1: (experience, Do)
Mode: Group
1.         Teacher’s Activity: Divide the children into groups, with each group made up of four pupils of two boys and two girls. The groups may contain more or less number of pupils. But it must be constituted to reflect the same number of gender (specifically the lesser the number of pupils in a group the better to enhance active pupils participation in group activities).
2.         Assign to each group a set of the instructional material. For example, assign plank, nails, hammer, pincers, to one group, scissors and twine to another group, football pumped a deflated football to another group, corked bottle and opener to another group etc.
3.         Teacher to move round the groups to direct pupils on what to do, and how to do it (the sequence).
4.         Teacher to ensure that every learner is actively involved in all activities.
Pupils’ role/activities
1.         Stay in the groups.
2.         Listen to the teacher’s directives and carry out activities as directed by teacher.
3.         Discuss in groups the actions being carried out.
4.         Participate actively and ask questions.
Step 2:             (Share the results, reactions and observation publicly)
Mode:  Individual.

Teacher’s role/activity
Call out two members (one male, one female) from each group to tell the class what the group did.

Pupils’ Roles
Carry out the directives of the teacher.
Step 3: Process (by discussing, looking at the experience, analyze, reflect).
Mode: Individual
Teacher’s role/activities
Ask questions that will lead to the process. Such questions may include;
1.         Is it easier and better to use fingernail to open a corked bottle or with an opener.
2.         To drive a nail into a wooden plank is it easier to do it by hitting the nails with your clenched fist or with a hammer?
3.         Which is the easiest way to remove a nail from a plank? Is it by using your hand to pull it out or by using a pincers?
4.         Describe the fastest way to inflate a deflated football? Is it by blowing it with your mouth or by using a pump?

Pupils’ activity/roles
Answer the questions asked by the teacher.
Step 4: Generalize (To connect the experience to real – world example)
Teacher’s role/activities
Develop some questions to guide the discussion. Such question may include;
1.         What do we call objects that enable us to carry out a task or work?
2.         Are all object which enhances different work to be done the same or different?
3.         Mention objects in the classroom or school premises that can be use to do what work.
4.         E.t.c

Pupils’ roles/activities
Answer teacher’s questions.
Step 5:             (Apply what was learned to a similar situation)
Mode:  Individual

Teacher’s roles/activities
Develop some questions to ask pupils. This may include;
1.         Why do we use machine to do work?
2.         Mention some simple machine and describe what they are used for at home or in the villages?
3.         What is the name of machine that is used to;
a.         Open a tin of tomatoes in the kitchen by mothers.
b.         peel tubers of yam before boiling.
c.         Till the ground before planting any seed.
Pubils’ roles/activities
Answer teacher’s questions.



APPENDIX
Basic Science and Technology Achievement Test (BSAT)
Class:                           Basic six (6)
Subject:                       Basic (basic) Science
Time allowed: 1 hr 30 mins
Instruction:      Attempt all questions, No penalty will be imposed on questions not correctly answered.
2.         Think carefully before your answer by choosing the correct answer from options a, b, c, d provided.
You and the environment
1.         The wearing away of the earth surface by wind or water is known as --(a) Erosion (b) Pollution (c) Friction (d) Simple machine
2.         The major mineral deposit in Enugu is ………….. (a) Tin (b) Iron ore (c) coal (d) salt.
3.         When the earth comes between the sun and the moon, eclipse of …………. Is formed (a) the sun (b) the moon (c) the stars (d) solar eclipse.
4.         The rotational movement of the earth does not give rise to …………….
(a) change in seasons (b) change in time, (c) day and night (d) sunrise and sun set.
5.         If there is no revolution of the earth, there will be no ………….. (a) change in time (b) change is season (c) day and night (d) evening and afternoon.
6.         The solar system is made up of the sun, the star and …….. (a) Sky (b) moon
(c) wind and waves.
7.         A stone pushes from a table falls to the ground due to the force of ……….
(a) repulsion (b) Centrifuge (c) gravidity (d) friction.
8.         Drug abuse could be avoid by …………………. (a) taking drugs only approved by qualified medical personnel (b) buying drugs from chemist whenever we fell sick without medical personnel advice. (c) taking drugs previously used by our parents (d) seeding medical advice from friends who have no medical knowledge.

You and energy         
1.         Any device that can help man to do his work is called ……… (a) screw (b) see saw (c) pulley (d) machine.
2.         The three parts of a simple machine are effort, (fulcrums) and ……….
(a) ladder (b) bottle opener (c) mechanical advantage (d) lever.
3.         A typical example of an inclined plane used at home is ….. (a) ladder (b) bottle opener (c) screw driver (d) kitchen knife.
4.         In bar magnet two like poles ……….. (a) attract (b) repel (c) embrace
(d) contract.
5.         The force which slowly wears away two surfaces that rob together is ....
(a) Force of wearing (b) force of gravity (c) force of attraction (d) force of friction.
6.         Which of these is not a simple machine? (a) Wheel barrow (b) table (c) bottle opener (d) scissors.
7.         Which of these is a household appliance that uses magnet in its operation is …………. (a) Door bell (b) whistles and flutes (c) tin cutters (d) grinders.
8.         The force that enables us to walk without falling is …………. (a) force of magnet (b) force of centrifuge (c) frictional force ( d) force of gravity.
9.         If we are selecting a machine, we must first consider those with …………..
(a) high mechanical advantage (b) low mechanical advantage (c) low efficiency (d) stability.
10.       The type of simple machine that enables us to draw water from wells is ----------- (a) inclined plane (b) pulley (c) lever (d) screw jack
11.       All simple machines can be subdivided into ------------ major parts (a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 3 (d) 4
12.       ----------- is an example of a magnet (a) horse-shore (b) cow-head © Ox-bow (d) clipper
13.       We can convert a non-magnetic object to magnetic object by (a) steaming (b) painting (c) corrosion (d) magnetizing
14.       Which of these is not an example of force (A) gravity (b) friction (c) particle
 (c) magnet.

YOU AND TECHNOLOGY
1.         The white light is made up of ------ colors (a) 10 (b) 3 (c) 7 (d) 8
2.         ---------------------- is an example of basic colour of light (a) green (b) violet (c) magenta (d) indigo.
3.         Which of these can be used to cut woods at home or in the carpenter’s shop (a) tape (b) scissors (c) saw (d) file machine
4.         A good maintenance device must be suitable for use by-----(a) male only (b) Female only (c) adult males (d) everybody.
5.         Combination of basic colours will give rise to ----------(a) complex colour (b) colorless color (c) secondary color (d0 ugly color.
6.         Which of these instruments is used to draw a circle (a) T-Square (b) ruler (c) compass (d) Dividers
           
LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGS
1.         Which of these is not a living thing?----------(a) fish (b) trees (c) water (d) man.
2.         The process of breathing in and out of air by human being is known as
(a) excerption (b) reduction (d) respiration.
3.         The male reproductive organ is known as -----------(a) breast (b) penis
(c) tongue (d) vagina.
4.         Shortage of rainfall affects crop production since it leads to ------------(a) early maturation of crop 9b0 reduction in crop yield (c0 lack of storage of crops yield (d0 farmers’ inability to market their farm products.
5.         It is not good to engage in premarital sex because it could lead to -----------------(a) HIV/AIDS infection(b) developing into successful individual (c) peer-group acceptance (d) sharing senior jokes with elders.
6.         Which of these does not show that an object is a living thing (a) growth
(b) feeding (c) breathing (d) change in color.
7.         Air pressure is necessary in the operation of ----------(a) bicycle tyres
(b) electric kettles (c) grinding mills (d) sewing machine.
8.         Regular---------------- will help the heart to pump blood and reduce sickness
(a) sleeping (b) feeding (c) talking (d) exercise.
9.         For blood to circulate around the body, it must pass through the (a) heart
(b) mouth (c) nose (d) eyes
10.       A good water  for human consumption must be -----------------(a) brown and odorless (b) colorless and odorless (c) Greenish and slimy (d) yellowish and sweet smiling.
11.       Which of the following is a blood vessel? ------- (1) vein 9b0 bladder © kidney (d) intestine
12.       An example of a human reproductive organ is ----- (a) eyes (b) nose (c) virgina (d) tongue.


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